|The NAICS Code 323 is described as|
Printing and Related Support Activities
Industries in the Printing and Related Support Activities subsector print products, such as newspapers, books, periodicals, business forms, greeting cards, and other materials, and perform support activities, such as bookbinding, platemaking services, and data imaging. The support activities included here are an integral part of the printing industry, and a product (a printing plate, a bound book, or a computer disk or file) that is an integral part of the printing industry is almost always provided by these operations.
Processes used in printing include a variety of methods used to transfer an image from a plate, screen, or computer file to some medium, such as paper, plastics, metal, textile articles, or wood. The most prominent of these methods is to transfer the image from a plate or screen to the medium (lithographic, gravure, screen, and flexographic printing). A rapidly growing new technology uses a computer file to directly ''drive'' the printing mechanism to create the image and new electrostatic and other types of equipment (digital or nonimpact printing).
In contrast to many other classification systems that locate publishing of printed materials in manufacturing, NAICS classifies the publishing of printed products in Subsector 511
, Publishing Industries. Though printing and publishing are often carried out by the same enterprise (a newspaper, for example), it is less and less the case that these distinct activities are carried out in the same establishment. When publishing and printing are done in the same establishment, the establishment is classified in Sector 51
, Information, in the appropriate NAICS industry even if the receipts for printing exceed those for publishing.
This subsector includes printing on clothing because the production process for that activity is printing, not clothing manufacturing. For instance, the printing of T-shirts is included in this subsector. In contrast, printing on fabric (or grey goods) is not included. This activity is part of the process of finishing the fabric and is included in the NAICS Textile Mills subsector in Industry 31331
, Textile and Fabric Finishing Mills.
It belongs to the code group
NAICS Code 32 Manufacturing
To this Code "323" belongs the sub codes
- NAICS Code 3231: (Inofficial Code)
The equivalent ISIC Code (Rev. 3.1) is
|22:|| Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media|
| || Édition, imprimerie et reproduction de supports enregistrÉs|
The nearest NACE Code (Rev. 1.1) is
|22:|| Herstellung von Verlags- und Druckerzeugnissen, Vervielfältigung von bespielten Ton-, Bild- und Datenträgern - Verlagsgewerbe, Druckgewerbe, Vervielfältigung von bespielten Trägern|
|22:|| Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media - Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media|
|22:|| Edition; Imprimerie et reproduction de supports enregistrés|
|22:|| Editoria stampa e riproduzione di supporti registrati|
|22:|| Edicion, artes graficas y reproducion de soportes grabados|
|22:|| Uitgeverijen, drukkerijen en reproduktie van opgenomen media|
|22:|| Grafisk industri|
The equivalent CPC Code (Rev. 1.1) is
Translation of the Code description
|323:|| Printing and Related Support Activities|