An Alkaline is a solution having a pH of more than 7. Alkalinity is the name given to the quantitative capacity of water to neutralize an acid. Measuring alkalinity is important in determining a stream's ability to neutralize acidic pollution from rainfall or wastewater. It is one of the best measures of the sensitivity of the stream to acid inputs. There can be long-term changes in the alkalinity of rivers and streams in response to human disturbances.
In the industrial and industry context, alkaline refers to a solution with a pH greater than 7, meaning it is basic or soluble in water. Alkaline substances are often used for cleaning, neutralizing acids, and increasing the pH level of a solution.
Examples of alkaline substances in the industrial and industry context include:
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda, used for cleaning and neutralizing acids
- Potassium hydroxide (KOH), used as a base in the manufacture of soap, detergents, and other cleaning products
- Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), also known as slaked lime, used as a pH adjuster and in water treatment
- Ammonia (NH3), used as a cleaning agent and in the production of fertilizers and other chemicals
- Borax (Na2B4O7), used as a cleaning agent and in the production of glass and ceramics
- Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), also known as washing soda, used for cleaning and as a water softener
- Potassium carbonate (K2CO3), used in the production of soaps and detergents, and as a pH adjuster in water treatment.