Deutsch: Pigment / Español: Pigmento / Português: Pigmento / Français: Pigment / Italiano: Pigmento
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light.
In the industrial and industry context, a pigment is a material that imparts color to other materials. Pigments are used in a wide range of industries, including paint and coating, ink, plastic, cosmetic, and food industries, to impart color and visual appeal to their products. Pigments are often finely ground solid particles that are insoluble in the medium in which they are used.
Examples of pigments used in the industrial and industry context include:
- Titanium dioxide, used as a white pigment in paint, paper, and plastic
- Iron oxide, used as a red, yellow, or brown pigment in paint and ceramics
- Carbon black, used as a black pigment in ink, rubber, and plastic
- Ultramarine blue, used as a blue pigment in paint, paper, and cosmetics
- Cadmium yellow, used as a yellow pigment in paint and plastic
- Chromium green, used as a green pigment in paint and ink
- Lead chromate, used as a yellow or orange pigment in paint and ceramics
- Manganese violet, used as a violet pigment in paint and cosmetics
- Cadmium red, used as a red pigment in paint and plastic.
The choice of pigment depends on several factors, such as the desired color, lightfastness, stability, and compatibility with the medium in which it will be used. Some pigments, such as lead chromate and cadmium pigments, are highly toxic and can have environmental and health implications, and alternatives are being developed and used to replace them.