Deutsch: Raffination / Español: Refinación / Português: Refino / Français: Raffinage / Italiano: Raffinazione
Refining is the process of purification of a substance or a form. The term is usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. For instance, most types of natural petroleum will burn straight from the ground, but it will burn poorly and quickly clog an engine with residues and by-products.
In an industrial context, "refining" refers to the process of purifying raw materials or substances, such as oil, minerals, or metals, into higher-value or more useful products. The refining industry encompasses the processing and purification of various raw materials and fuels, including crude oil, natural gas, and minerals. Some examples of industries related to refining include:
- Petroleum refining and fuel production, including gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel
- Chemical manufacturing, including petrochemicals and fertilizers
- Mineral refining, including metal production and smelting
- Refining and processing of precious metals, including gold and silver
- Waste and recycling, including scrap metal refining and plastics recycling
- Biofuels and alternative energy production, including bioethanol and biodiesel
- Natural gas processing and liquefaction.