Deutsch: Reinigung / Español: Campamento de Purificación / Français: Purification
Purification is the process of rendering something pure, i.e. clean of foreign elements and/or pollution.

In an industrial context, purification refers to the process of removing impurities, contaminants, or unwanted substances from a material, product, or stream. This can be achieved through a variety of physical, chemical, or biological processes, depending on the nature of the impurities and the properties of the material being purified. Here are some examples of purification processes in different industries:

  1. Water purification: Water is treated to remove suspended solids, dissolved organic and inorganic compounds, bacteria, viruses, and other contaminants to make it safe for drinking, irrigation, or industrial use. Purification processes may include filtration, sedimentation, coagulation, disinfection, and reverse osmosis.

  2. Air purification: Air is cleaned to remove pollutants, allergens, and other harmful particles to improve indoor air quality or to comply with environmental regulations. Purification methods may involve air filters, electrostatic precipitators, UV light, or activated carbon.

  3. Chemical purification: Chemicals are purified to remove impurities or to separate individual components for further processing or use. Purification techniques may include distillation, crystallization, extraction, chromatography, or centrifugation.

  4. Pharmaceutical purification: Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are purified to remove impurities, solvents, or residual reagents to meet purity standards for safe and effective use in drugs. Purification methods may involve crystallization, filtration, distillation, or chromatography.

  5. Metal purification: Metals are purified to remove impurities, such as sulfur, phosphorus, or other elements, to improve their mechanical, electrical, or chemical properties. Purification techniques may include smelting, refining, electroplating, or electrolysis.

Other terms related to purification in industrial contexts include:

  1. Separation: The process of dividing a mixture of substances into its individual components based on their physical or chemical properties.

  2. Filtration: The process of separating solid particles from a liquid or gas stream by passing it through a porous material, such as a filter or membrane.

  3. Distillation: The process of separating two or more liquids with different boiling points by heating them to their boiling points and condensing the vapor back into a liquid.

  4. Extraction: The process of separating a desired substance from a mixture using a solvent that selectively dissolves the desired substance.

  5. Purging: The process of removing unwanted gases or impurities from a material or system by flushing it with a clean gas or vacuum.

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