Deutsch: Schaum / Español: Espuma / Português: Espuma / Français: Mousse (physique) / Italiano: Schiuma
A foam is a substance that is formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid. A bath sponge and the head on a glass of beer are examples of foams. In most foams, the volume of gas is large, with thin films of liquid or solid separating the regions of gas. An important division of solid foams is into closed-cell foams and open-cell foams.

In an industrial and manufacturing context, "foam" typically refers to a material that is produced by the introduction of air or gas into a liquid, creating a lightweight and porous structure with many applications. Some examples of foam in industrial and manufacturing industries include:

  1. Polyurethane foam - A widely used foam material made from a reaction between polyols and isocyanates, which is used in cushioning, insulation, and packaging applications.

  2. Polystyrene foam - A lightweight and rigid foam material made from the polymerization of styrene, which is used in insulation, packaging, and disposable food service products.

  3. EVA foam - A soft and flexible foam material made from ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, which is used in athletic shoe soles, martial arts mats, and child safety products.

  4. PVC foam - A dense and rigid foam material made from the polymerization of vinyl chloride, which is used in construction and marine applications, as well as sign and display products.

  5. Spray foam insulation - A type of insulation that is sprayed in liquid form and expands to fill cavities in walls, ceilings, and floors, providing an effective barrier to heat, air, and moisture.

  6. Foam rubber - A soft and flexible material made from the polymerization of rubber, which is used in cushioning and sealing applications, such as gaskets and weatherstripping.

  7. Foam concrete - A type of concrete that uses foam to reduce the weight and increase the insulation properties of the material, which is used in lightweight building construction and insulation.

Industrial foam products are produced by a variety of methods, including extrusion, molding, and foaming, and are used in a wide range of applications, from insulation and cushioning to packaging and construction materials.

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